Volume 2 | Issue 2

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Recently published articles (Volume2/Issue2) can be found  below. You can see all published volumes here: Archive


1. The Public Policy Exception to the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Ignoring the Public Policy Exception Is a Detriment to U.S. Litigants. Meredith Pace.
– Meredith Pace

As United States citizens and foreign nationals engage in transnational civil litigation, one approach to warrant fairness among litigants and nations is the public policy exception to the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. Yet, the pursuit of fair justice that embodies this exception has failed U.S. litigants who are regularly denied foreign judgment enforcement in the face of public policy, all the while U.S. courts continually embrace notions of comity in disregard of reciprocity. This is because, unlike foreign nations, the United States is not a signatory to a multilateral foreign judgment agreement and seeks a leveraging tool. As a result, foreign tribunals retain a significant advantage in transnational litigation.

This note will address the prejudice U.S. litigants face in foreign tribunals and how U.S. courts are to blame for impractical and timeworn solutions. Furthermore, this note will explore how justice for U.S. litigants begins with federalization of the public policy standard followed by a blueprint of its own foreign judgment agreement. Until the United States assumes this position however, the public policy exception must be reaffirmed through principles of reciprocity. The United States has essentially lost its bargaining power to the detriment of U.S. litigants, and its time to take it back.



2. Does China Follow the West? A Perspective of State-Citizen Interaction in  Foreign Trade Governance.
– Tao Li & Zuoli Jiang

China’s emergence onto the world is one of the most eye-catching events in the past decades, but it remains unclear to what extent the diffusing western liberalism has changed Chinese society and how a rising China will, in turn, impact the evolving global governance order. Focusing on the perspective of the interaction between the Chinese government and its citizens in foreign trade governance, this article explores China’s deviation from the constitutionalisation pathway for global economic governance. As China rises, China is likely to add its own values to the evolving global governance order. Likewise, some Chinese thoughts deserve being added to the theorization of global economic governance.


3. Different Approaches to Conflicting Standard Terms under the  United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.
– Kamal Huseynli

‘Battle of the forms’ is one of the unresolved legal problems to which different countries’ courts have their own approach. There are three main approaches in the literature in respect of the ‘battle of the forms’: (i) domestic approach; (ii) last shot rule; (iii) knock-out rule. However, mainly the last shot and the knock-out rules are in competition with each other. While some courts of the contracting states to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG or Convention) apply the last shot rule referring to article 19 of the CISG, other contracting states’ courts try to solve the ‘battle of the forms’ problem within the general principles of the Convention by applying the knock-out rule. In this article, the main pros and cons of those three approaches are discussed in order to find the most appropriate solution for the ‘battle of the forms’ problem. In the conclusion, it is supposed that courts must apply the knock-out rule while adjudicating in respect of the conflicting standard terms. 


4. Subrogation – Right Transfer Mechanism in Risk Transfer Industry.
– Etibar Huseynov

This article is discussing the subrogation as one of the key legal concepts of insurance business. Origin and definition of subrogation, historical background, types of subrogation, common and civil law approaches to this legal concept, legal doctrines made to ameliorate the harshness of subrogation, ‘made whole doctrine’ as the most widespread one, pros and cons of made whole doctrine are examined in this article. It is also indicated that in spite of its ‘blind sides’ the made whole doctrine, there is no any alternative. Furthermore, the necessity of modifications is also emphasized.


5. Federal Reserve System and Its Role in the Emergence of the Global Financial Crisis.
– Samir Mahmudov

This paper is devoted to the discussion of the principles of the US Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the largest economy in the world, and its contribution to the emergence of the financial crisis of 2008. At first, in Part II, the paper focuses on the general overview of the Federal Reserve System and its activities. The discussion, then, shifts to the structure of the Federal Reserve System and focuses on its key structural components that maintain the proper functioning of the U.S. central bank. The Part III will examine the history of past events preceding to the financial crisis, and analyze factors, including the Federal Reserve System’s failures, which determined the growth of subprime mortgage bubble and its painful collapse. The Part IV (Conclusion) will summarize the regulatory failures of the Federal Reserve System, clarify the chronology of mistakes, and propose possible alternative approach.


6. Telefonla Aparılan Danışıqların Ələ Keçirilməsi: Azərbaycan və ABŞ Qanunvericiliyi və Məhkəmə Praktikasının Müqayisəli Təhlili.
– Elnur Kərimov

Məqalədə telefon və digər qurğularla aparılan danışıqların, rabitə və digər texniki vasitələrlə ötürülən məlumatların və başqa məlumatların ələ keçirilməsinin maddi və prosessual aspektləri, belə məlumatlara müdaxilənin cinayət məsuliyyəti yaratdığı və ya qanuni hesab edildiyi hallar yer almışdır. Açıq və məhdudlaşdırılan informasiyalar, onların əldə edilməsi və yayılmasının legitim hesab edildiyi şərtlər Azərbaycan Respublikasının və Amerika Birləşmiş Ştatlarının bu sahədə milli qanunvericiliyində və məhkəmə praktikasında öyrənilmiş və əlavə tövsiyələr verilmişdir.